Anodes with mixed metal oxide (MMO) coating mostly consist of the base material titanium or niobium onto which precious metal oxides of the platinum metals group with other valve metals are applied. Usually iridium mixed oxide coatings are used for chloride-free electrolytes, whereas ruthenium or iridium/ruthenium mixed oxide coatings are used for the production of chlorine and hypochlorite.

In case of special wear caused by high current density or current reversal, additional metallic or ceramic intermediate layers can be applied.

MMO anodes are characterised by the following features:

  • Flexible, application-specific design
  • Production of complex shape anodes possible
  • Easy handling, low maintenance
  • Energy saving potential
  • Current reversal operation possible
  • Low weight (in particular expanded metal anodes)
  • Long lifetime even at very high current density
  • Dimensional stabiliity
  • Recoating possible

Overview of the specifications – Mixed metal oxide coated titanium and niobium

Base material: Titanium or niobium
Shape of base material: Expanded metal, sheet, pipe, rod, wire
Size + construction: Customer specific
Precious metal load: 8 – 40 g / m2
Layer types: Ir mixed oxide / Ru mixed oxide / Ir-Ru-mixed oxide
Coating method: Thermal transformation of precious metals resp. valve metal compounds into the form of oxide
Specific current density: max. 100 A / dm2
Type of application: Anode / bipolar electrode (current reversal, reverse pulse plating)
pH-value: 0 – 11
Bath temperature: max. 60 °C

The available mesh types for the base metals titanium and niobium are listed in the product categories “Platinised Titanium” and “Platinised Niobium” of this website.

Product information on request.